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Present Tense

Present Tense – Regular Verbs

Aimsir Láithreach – Briathra Rialta

Affirmative Statements

In making affirmative statements in the present tense, all changes are made at the end of the verb. First, identify the root of the verb as follows:

  1. For the majority of First Conjugation (usually one syllable) verbs, the entire verb is the root. Please refer to the samplaí (examples) in the chart below. An exception is when the verb ends with “igh.” In that case, if there is an accented vowel immediately before the “igh,” simply drop the “igh” to expose the root. In all other cases, delete the “igh” and replace it with an “í”. Please refer to the samplaí (examples) in the chart below. Also, be aware that there are a few two syllable verbs in the First Conjugation which maintain two syllables in the root. [T]
  2. For Second Conjugation (usually multi-syllable) verbs, part or all of the end of the verb is generally removed to reveal the root. Whenever these verbs end in “(a)igh” (the most common type), simply drop that syllable. Please refer to the samplaí (examples) in the chart below. In most other cases, squeeze the vowels out of the last syllable and tack the remaining consonant(s) onto the end of the first syllable. For example, with the verb “codail,” squeeze the “ai” out of the second syllable and add the remaining “l” to the end of the first syllable to make the root “codl…”. Please refer to the samplaí (examples) in the chart below.

Secound, to the root add these endings:

For First Conjugation verbs, add:

  • “…(a)im” in the first person singular, or
    “…(e)ann” in all other cases.

For Second Conjugation verbs, add:

  • “…(a)ím” in the first person singular, and
    “…(a)íonn” in all other cases.

Negative Statements and Questions

Negative Statements and Questions are constructed in the present tense by making these changes to the affirmative statement form:

  1. Negative Statements – Add “Ní” before the verb, and séimhiú (lenite) the initial consonant in the verb where possible.
  2. Direct Questions – Add “An” before the verb, and úrú (eclipse) the initial consonant in the verb where possible.
  3. Negative Questions – Add “Nach” before the verb, and úrú (eclipse) the initial consonant in the verb where possible. If the verb begins in a vowel, add “n-” in front of the vowel.

Please refer to the samplaí (examples) in the chart below.

Present Tense – Examples

Réimniú
Conjugation
Samplaí
Examples
A 2 Athraíonn Uaitéar a phleananna go minic. Uaitéar often changes his plans.

Ní athraíonn sé… An athraíonn sé…? Nach n-athraíonn sé…?
B 1 Buaileann Beatha madraí dána. Beatha strikes (beats) bad dogs.

Ní bhuaileann sí… An mbuaileann sí…? Nach mbuaileann sí…?
C 2 Codlaíonn Greag i gcró na móna. Greag sleeps in the turf shed.

Ní chodlaíonn sé… An gcodlaíonn sé…? Nach gcodlaíonn sé…?
D 2 Dúisíonn Treasa go moch ar maidin. Treasa awakes early in the morning.

Ní dhúisíonn sí… An ndúisíonn sí…? Nach ndúisíonn sí…?
E 2 Eiríonn Caoimhín leis an ngrian gach lá. Caoimhín arises at sunrise every day.

Ní éiríonn sé… An éiríonn sé…? Nach n-éiríonn sé…?
F 1 Fágann Crios a naionán sna siopaí. Crios leaves her infant in the shops.

Ní fhágann sí… An bhfágann sí…? Nach bhfágann sí…?
G 1 Glanann Máirín a coinsias sa séipéal. Máirín clears (cleans) her conscience in the chapel.

Ní ghlanann sí… An nglanann sí…? Nach nglanann sí…?
I 2 Insíonn Liam bréaga dúinn chomh minic is féidir leis. Liam tells us lies as often as he can.

Ní insíonn sé… An insíonn sé…? Nach n-insíonn sé…?
L 2 Labhraíonn Muiris leis na mairbh san oíche. Muiris speaks to the dead at night.

Ní labhraíonn sé… An labhraíonn sé…? Nach labhraíonn sé…?
M 2 Maraíonn Ethel í fhéin leis an ól gan stad. Ethel ceaselessly kills herself with drink.

Ní mharaíonn sí… An maraíonn sí…? Nach maraíonn sí…?
N 1 Níonn Seosamh a choróin gach lá. Seosamh washes his crown every day.

Ní níonn sé… An níonn sé…? Nach níonn sé…?
O 1 Ólann Éamonn a phiontaí go sciobtha. Éamonn drinks his pints quickly.

Ní ólann sé… An ólann sé…? Nach n-ólann sé…?
P 1 Pósann Bairbe fear nua gach re bliain. Bairbe marries a new man every year.

Ní phósann sí… An bpósann sí…? Nach bpósann sí…?
R 1 Ritheann Sóisear ar nós na gaoithe. Sóisear runs like the wind.

Ní ritheann sé… An ritheann sé…? Nach ritheann sé…?
S1 1 Seasann an ghruaig ar cheann Thomáis. Thomas’ hair stands on end.

Ní sheasann sí… An seasann sí…? Nach seasann sí…?
S2 1 Sroicheann Mollaí pointe áirithe. Mollaí reaches a certain point.

Ní shroicheann sí… An sroicheann sí…? Nach sroicheann sí…?
S3 2 Smaoiníonn Pádraig tamaillín faoi. Pádraig thinks about it for a while.

Ní smaoiníonn sé… An smaoiníonn sé…? Nach smaoiníonn sé…?
T 1 Taispeánann buachaillí a ngliomaigh d’Eibhlín. Boys show their lobsters to Eibhlín.

Ní thaispeánann siad… An dtaispeánann siad…? Nach dtaispeánann siad…?
U 2 Ullmhaíonn Pádraigín deochanna nimhiúla dúinn. Pádraigín prepares poisonous drinks for all of us.

Ní ullmhaíonn sí… An ullmhaíonn sí…? Nach n-ullmhaíonn sí…?